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Crop Diseases Research Institute, SARC

CROP DISEASES RESEARCH INSTITUTE
SARC, Karachi, Pakistan

INTRODUCTION
The Crop Diseases Research Institute was established in 1962 at Karachi. The location Karachi was selected because of highly conducive climatic condition for the study of leaf rust/brown rust (Puccinia recondita), stem rust (Puccinia graminis). At present this institute consists of three laboratories, Rust Pathology, Seed Pathology and Nematology.

The CDRI Karachi conducts research on identification of sources of resistant to major diseases of wheat and barley under National Wheat Diseases Screening Nursery (NWDSN), National Uniform Wheat Yield Trial (NUWYT) and screening of international nurseries, pathotype and virulence analysis of rust to monitor the changes in pathogenicity through Wheat Rust Trap Nursery (WRTN) and rust resistant gene postulation in wheat germplasm and commercial cultivars. The germplasm wheat is critically evaluated for their resistance and data obtained is sent to PARC headquarters for presentation in Varietal Evaluation Committee.

The CDRI Karachi is responsible to identify the plant pathological problems of other agricultural field crops as well. It conducts field experiments under different agroecological zones in the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. In the province of Sindh leaf/brown rust of wheat is the major disease of wheat. Nowadays an aggressive race of stem rust is developed for which the aforesaid materials are screened. Study of seedborne pathogens of the important field crops such as wheat, rice, sorghum, sunflower, chillies, cucurbits and tomato are carried out in the laboratory. The quality of seeds is determined for boosting and increasing yield at farmer's level.

Survey, pathogenicity and control of plant parasitic nematodes associated with cereals, fruits and vegetables are carried out in the laboratory. Agrochemical and organic matters for the control of nematodes are being carried out. Plant disease diagnostic and advisory service is being provided to the progressive farmers, agricultural research institutes. Besides students are registered at the Institute to do research for their Ph.D. programmes. Four students have obtained their Ph.D. in Nematology/Microbiology and two their M.Phil from the Institute. 
 

OBJECTIVES

  • To evaluate wheat-breeding material for resistance to rusts and to find suitable sources of broad based resistance to diseases for the development of high yielding rust resistant wheat varieties.

  • To evaluate candidate lines against rusts for approval and release as new variety for commercial cultivation.

  • Identification of specific changes occurring in the virulence causing leaf rust.

  • To determine the geographical distribution of leaf rust and stripe rust virulence.

  • Identification of pathotypes and to determine their frequency.

  • Identification of effective gene(s) for use in developing resistant varieties.

  • To determine the resistant potential of okra and Brinjal cultivars against root-knot and root rot.

  • To evaluate resistant potential against loose smut of wheat (Ustilago tritici) (NUWYT).

  • To evaluate some organic soil amendments in management of nematodes infecting chilli, date-palm, maize and pomegranate and their effect on yield under field conditions.

  • Studies of seedborne mycoflora associated with sunflower varieties cultivated in Sindh.

  • Monitoring incidence of root rot, wilt, powdery mildew and downy mildew diseases of melon in district Badin.
     

CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

  • Varietal evaluation of wheat and other cereals against diseases through NWDSN and NUWYT Nurseries in Sindh and Balochistan.

  • Epidemiological studies of wheat rusts.

  • Pathological studies of vegetables and fruit crops in Sindh and Balochistan.

  • Studies on nematode management in vegetables and fruits grown in Sindh and Balochistan.
     

ACHIEVEMENTS

  • Based on evaluation of wheat germplasm against different diseases including rusts, smuts and bunts over 70 high yielding and diseases resistant varieties were recommended for their approval and cultivation in sindh and Balochistan province.

  • Developed Fertinemakil (nematicide) in collaboration with PCSIR Laboratories, Karachi (Patent & Design Act 1911, Serial No. 1380).

  • Developed technique for mass cultivation of K-fixation bacterial as a seed dressing (Patent & Design Act, 1911, Serial No. 139710).

  • Evaluation of various fungicides lead to identification of Baytan, Bayleton, Benlate and Ridomil as highly effective fungicide for the control of seedborne diseases of different crops (cereal, vegetables, oilseeds).

  • Carbofuran, mustard and castor oil-cake have been found highly effective in the control of nematodes viz., Helicotylenchus indicus, Tylenchorhynchus goffarti, Tylenchorhynchus curvus, Hoplolaimus seinhorsti and Pratylenchus thornei associated with chillies, maize and okra.

  • Developed seed health testing techniques for the detection of Fusarium spp., Nivossia indica and Trichoconis padwickii.

  • Different organic amendments have been successfully used in the management of nematodes. The amendments are: Withania somnifera, plant extracts, Tridax procumbens plant extract, castor oilcake, mustard oilcake, neem oilcake, sugarcane bagasse, rice husk and poultry manure.

  • Received first prize amounting Rs. 25,000 for best scientific publication from Pakistan Book Foundation, Islamabad.

  • Successfully completed project of Pakistan Science Foundation, S-PARC/Agr 207, entitled, “Identification and control of plant parasitic nematodes associated with rice using organic soil amendments in Thatta district, Sindh.

  • Successfully completed project of Pakistan Science Foundation, S-PARC/Agr-277, entitled, “Investigation of plant parasitic nematodes and Pseudomonas associated with date-palm and their management by organic amendments”.

  • Successfully completed ALP funded project 1-3-06 “Nematodes of fruit and vegetable crops and their management in Karachi and Hyderabad districts using plant extracts”.

  • Dr. Aly Khan, Director CDRI was awarded Dr. Z.A. Hashmi Gold Medal and a cash prize of Rs. 100,000 by Pakistan Science Foundation on World Science Day for Peace and Development on November 10, 2010 for being the most productive P.I. during the period 1995-2005.

PATENTS DEVELOPED

  • Method for preparation of Fertinemakil (Patent & Design Act 1911, Serial No. 1360) and mass cultivation of K-fixation bacteria as seed dressing (Patent & Design Act 383/2005) have been accepted as patents and published in the gazette of Pakistan.

  • Developed technique for mass cultivation of K-fixation bacterial as a seed dressing (Patent & Design Act, 1911, Serial No. 139710).

PROJECTS COMPLETED AND ONGOING 
PROJECTS (Completed)

  • Strengthening of ongoing wheat rust research activities in Pakistan. (MINFAL, ASPL-II). Rs. 0.567 million (2007 to 2010).

  • Histopathology and control using plant extracts of nematodes associated with Apple (Malus pumila), Grapes (Vitis vinifera) and Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in Kalat district, Balochistan. (RADP funded) Rs. 0.421 million (2008 to 2009).

  • Investigations of plant parasitic nematodes and Pseudomonas associated with date-palm in Balochistan” funded by Pakistan Science Foundation (2001 to 2004).

  • Nematodes of fruit and vegetable crops and their management in Karachi and Hyderabad districts using plant extracts. (2004 to 2007). ALP funded Rs. 2.641 million.

PROJECT (Ongoing)

Nematodes associated with Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) and their management using oil-cakes in Khuzdar and Kalat districts. (PSF funded) Rs. 1.347 million (2008 to 2011).

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
International

  • CIMMYT

  • ICARDA

National

  • National Wheat Programme

  • Wheat Research Institute, Sakrand, Sindh

  • Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, NIA Tandojam, Sindh

  • Plant Pathology Section, ARI Tandojam, Sindh

  • Progressive Farmers of Sindh and Balochistan

  • PCSIR Laboratories, Karachi

ADVISORY SERVICES/TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

Diagnostic and advisory services are being provided to the farmers of Sindh and Balochistan for the identification of plant diseases and their control. Popular scientific articles on diseases of wheat, rice, vegetables, mango and eradication of weeds from wheat and rice fields have been published in “Dawn”, “Jang” and “Nawa-e-Waqt”, the leading English and Urdu newspapers of Pakistan, for the benefit of the farmers.
 

SCIENTIFIC STAFF

Sr.# Name Designation Email
01 Dr. Aly Khan PSO/ Resource Person This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
02 Mrs. Nasreen Sultana PSO This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
03 Mr. Khalil A. Khanzada SO This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Resouce Person :

Dr. Aly Khan, PSO

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

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