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National Integrated Pest Management Program


Concepts of TOF and FFS

Use of Training of Trainers/Facilitators (ToT/F) and Farmer Field Schools (FFS) has been demonstrated as an effective means of IPM dissemination. The approach is field-based and participatory. Each setting has its own problems and solutions, and farmers must be equipped to best address their problems.

Under the TOT/FFS, 25 participants (mostly agricultural extension agents, but also representatives from research, NGOs, or others) are trained over a cropping season. The schedule is such a participatory one that all participants of the ToF work in the field with farmers. For first two days each week, the ToF participants observe a selected field and do the agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) and then discuss what they observed in the field including the soil, the crop health, need for water, insect pests and their natural enemies, etc. This is done throughout the season of the crop. For next two days the ToF participants break into groups of five each to run 10 FFS and interact with two groups of 25 farmers each in 10 FFS (with 250 farmers). 

There too, the farmers do the same AESA, where they collect the insects, etc., draw their figures and present results, on the basis of which, further cultural practice and action is decided collectively. This way, the farmers become more organized, vigilant and realistic and if something is not clear, some short & very simple experiments (not too scientific) are set up by them to resolve some unclear issues. Thus, the farmers become better organized, learn to work in community, make their own day to day decisions and become experts so that they do not depend on the chemical companies or extension staff for crop production and become able to resolve conflicts by themselves.

The world experience over the years has shown that the best way for the translation of knowledge is through training of facilitators (TOF) and Farmer Field School (FFS) activities. One of the main reasons for the success of this approach is that the decisions are not preplanned and are not dictated from a central command but are based on the analysis of agro-ecosystem and site situation and are made by the farmers with the help of facilitators. Suitability of FFS in cotton has successfully been demonstrated in various countries. Similar activities are also being done successfully in Pakistan as already mentioned, making visible impact on farmers' understanding of IPM. 

It is imperative to extend these activities to all the provinces. This will not only improve the skill of trainees of the extension staff but would also increase the knowledge and income of farmers. Once empowered with knowledge, the farmers can apply the approaches to all the crops and share their experiences with other farmers too. Adopting conservationist approach as opposed to interventionist approach to pest control, decision-making has paid off wherever it has been implemented. It is expected that the farmers trained through this training would continue to share their experiences through Farmer Fields Schools run by the farmers themselves as well.


The current project is executing its strategies in five areas that are

  • Policy Analysis
  • Education
  • Information dissemination and public awareness
  • Research and Development
  • Field Implementation (IPM practice)

Under these areas the project has so far achieved;

  • Twenty one Training of Trainers (ToT) has been conducted
  • Six hundred and sixty two Farmer Field Schools (FFS)/Women Open School (WoS) and Childeren Ecology Clubs.
  • Five hundred and sixty five facilitators has been trained.
  • Almost seventeen thousand farmers has been trained during this process
  • Seventy three Teachers/researchers belonging to university/research institutions trained during three workshops identifying problems and designing research proposals
  • One hundred and thirty five Teachers/researchers exposed to the FFS/ToF approach.
  • Five IPM seminars were conducted in the Universities of all the provinces for the awareness of FFS approach to the faculty members and Post-graduate students.


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